Department of Biological Sciences

Programs and Course Descriptions

IMPORTANT NOTICE ABOUT BA AND BS PROGRAMS

PLEASE READ VERY CAREFULLY

A.  Students matriculated in the Newark Colleges of Arts and Sciences have the opportunity to declare as their first major a course of study that leads to either a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree in Biology.  The biology major is offered jointly by Rutgers-Newark and the New Jersey Institute of Technology.

B.  If Biology is your second major, your course of study in Biology must match the degree program that corresponds to your first major.  For example, if your first major leads to a BS degree in RBS or CLS, then you must complete the BS requirements for a second major in Biology.  If your first major leads to a BA degree (for example, Chemistry at RU), then follow the BA in Biology curriculum.

Contents

The Biology Major and other programs ( )

BS in Clinical Laboratory Sciences or Medical Imaging Sciences

Teacher Certification

The Biology Minor

Course Descriptions

 

Majoring in Biology

The biology major introduces students to the fundamental concepts, principles, and procedures characteristic of several major conceptual approaches to organisms. The major provides a solid foundation in biology and also permits students to specialize in any of the major branches of biology.

The biology major is useful for students whose career plans lie in pure or applied biology; agriculture; biochemistry; biotechnology; botany; conservation, environmental quality, and natural resources; dentistry; ecology; food science and nutrition; forestry; genetics; horticulture; human medicine; limnology, marine biology, and biological oceanography; microbiology; natural history and nature study; pharmacy; plant pathology; public health; teaching of biology; toxicology; veterinary medicine; wildlife management; and zoology.

Students considering admission to medical, dental, or veterinary school should meet with the prehealth adviser, Dr. John Maiello, in 306 Hill Hall (973-353-5705).

In the sophomore year, students majoring in biology are assigned a member of the faculty to serve as a permanent academic counselor; consultation with faculty advisers on a regular basis is imperative.

Information about the major is available in the biology departmental office, Boyden 206, where the student must go to officially declare a major. Specific questions related to the biology major and minor may be addressed to Dr. Miguel Cervantes-Cervantes, undergraduate coordinator. Students are urged to meet with their advisers at least once each semester.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences and Medical Imaging Sciences (formerly Allied Health Technologies)

Clinical Laboratory Sciences and  Medical Imaging Sciences are BS programs offered jointly with the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey’s School of Health Related Professions in Newark (UMDNJ-SHRP).  For information about these programs, please see "Joint BS degree programs" in  Undergraduate Programs.

Major Requirements for the Bachelor of Arts in Biology (as of September, 2011)

The BA degree in Biology is offered as a joint program between Rutgers University and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) through their Federated Department of Biological Sciences. The BA major requires 38 credits of coursework in biological sciences, plus cognate courses in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Courses are offered on both the Rutgers and NJIT campuses.

Rutgers students can officially declare their intention to pursue a course of study leading to a BA degree in Biology after completing 120:200 Concepts in Biology.

To declare their major and their preference for the bachelor of arts curriculum, students must visit the Biological Sciences Office in Boyden Hall 206 to submit an application for admission to the major. At this time the student’s record will be reviewed and, if accepted into the major, an academic major advisor will be assigned. Students should meet with their advisor regularly, at least once a semester, to plan their course of study.

After 120:200 Concepts in Biology, students take 120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3 credits), 120:202 Foundations CMB Laboratory (1 credit), 120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3 credits) and 120:206 Foundations EE Laboratory (1 credit) as their core curricular requirements; these four courses provide students with the necessary background to enroll in upper division courses. Please be aware that many upper division courses require completion of both the General Biology and Foundations: Cell and Molecular Biology as prerequisites.

Beyond the core courses, all students must successfully complete one course from each of three Biological Concepts Clusters and two courses designated as Laboratory/Field Experience.

Students complete their course of study by successfully completing, with grades of C or better, courses in biological sciences for a minimum of 38 credits.

Among the courses successfully completed for the BA degree, one of those courses must be recognized as Writing Intensive (WI). Students should check the WI status of courses before registering, as the roster of WI courses may vary from semester to semester.

All cognate courses must be completed with grades of C or better. Cognate courses can be completed by enrolling in the appropriate courses either at Rutgers or at NJIT. Please note that in the case of sequential cognate courses the entire sequence must be completed at one or the other campus. Courses offered by NJIT are indicated as School 28 or with the prefix “NJIT.”

 

1. CORE COURSES

21:120:200 Concepts in Biology (4)

21:120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:202 Foundations of Biology: Cell Mol Biol Laboratory (1)

21 (or 28):120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3)

21 (or 28):120:206 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution Laboratory (1)

 

2. BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS CLUSTERS.

Students must complete one course from each of the three clusters listed below.

A) Ecological and Evolutionary Framework

28:120:222 Evolution (3)

21:120:280 Ecology (3)

21:120:282 Animal Behavior (3)

21:120:370 Plant Ecology (3)

 

B) The Functional Organism

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology Lecture (3)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (4)

 

C) Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

21:120:356 Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:360 Biochemistry (3)

21:120:352 Genetics (3)

21:120:355 Cell Biology (3)

 

3. LABORATORY/FIELD EXPERIENCE

Majors must complete any two courses from the list below. The course used for requirement 3B above cannot be used again here.

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)

21:120:227 Biology of Invertebrates (4)

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)

21:120:285 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

21:120:311 Taxonomy Vascular Plants (4)

21:120:313 Mycology (WI) (4)

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)

21:120:326 Parasitology Laboratory (1)

21:120:328 Ecology of Birds (3)

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology (4)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (1)

21:120:371 Field Studies in Plant Ecology (3)

21:120:380 Field Ecology (3)

28:120:475 Ecological Field Methods (3)

21:120:486 Tropical Field Biology (2)

28:120:405 Cell Physiology and Imaging (4)

21:120:430 Plant Growth and Development (4)

21:120:451 Lab in Cell Biophysics (4)

21:120:405 Microanatomy of Tissues (4)

 

4. ADDITIONAL COURSE OFFERINGS

This is not an additional requirement, but rather a list of elective courses that can be used to complete the 38 course credits needed for the biology major.

28:120:225 Insects and Human Society (3)

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)

21:120:326 Parasitology Laboratory (1)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology (4)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (1)

21:120:345 Comparative Vert Physiology (3)

21:120:346 Neurobiology (3)

21:120:350 Immunology (3)

21:120:365 Evolution of Humans (3)

28:120:368 Ecology and Evolution of Disease (3)

28:120:375 Conservation Biology  (3)

28:120:383 Neural Basis of Behavior  (3)

21:120:402 Biology of Cancer  (3)

21:120:422 Biological Invasions (3)

21:120:445 Endocrinology (3)

28:120:447 Cell and Systems Neurobiol (3)

28:120:448 Neuropathophysiology (3)

21:120:455 Molecular Cell Biology (3)

21:120:456 Virology (3)

21:120:472 Environmental Assessment (3)

21:120:491 Problems in Biology (1-3)

21:120:493 Seminar in Biology (1)

21:120:492 Problems in Biology (1-3)

21:120:494 Seminar in Biology (1)

 

5A. COGNATE COURSES

21:160:115, General Chemistry (4)

21:160:116, General Chemistry (4)

21:160:113, General Chemistry Lab (1)

21:160:114, General Chemistry Lab (1)

21:160:335, Organic Chemistry I (4)

21:160:336, Organic Chemistry II (4)

21:160:331, Organic Chemistry Lab (2)

21:750:203, General Physics I (4)

21:750:204, General Physics II (4)

21:750:205, Intro Physics Lab I (1)

21:750:206, Intro Physics Lab II (1)

21:640:135, Calculus I (4)

 

5B. ALTERNATE COGNATE COURSES AT NJIT

NJIT Chem 124, General Chem Lab (1)

NJIT Chem 125, General Chemistry I (3)

NJIT Chem 126, General Chemistry II (3)

NJIT Chem 243, Organic Chemistry I (3)

NJIT Chem 244, Organic Chemistry II (3)

NJIT Chem 244A, Organic Chem Lab (2)

NJIT Phys 111, Physics I (3)

NJIT Phys 121, Physics II (3)

NJIT Phys 111A, Physics Lab I (1)

NJIT Phys 121A, Physics Lab II (1)

NJIT Math 111, Calculus I (4)

 

Major Requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Biology (as of September 2011)

The BS degree in Biology is offered as a joint program between Rutgers University and the New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) through their Federated Department of Biological Sciences. The BS major requires 38 credits of coursework in biological sciences, plus cognate courses in chemistry, physics, and mathematics. Courses are offered on both the Rutgers and NJIT campuses. Please notice that the BS program has a computational biology cluster and additional cognate courses in mathematics.

Rutgers students can officially declare their intention to pursue a course of study leading to a BS degree in Biology after completing 120:200 Concepts in Biology.

To declare their major and their preference for the bachelor of science curriculum, students must visit the Biological Sciences Office in Boyden Hall 206 to submit an application for admission to the major. At this time the student’s record will be reviewed and, if accepted into the major, an academic major advisor will be assigned. Students should meet with their advisor regularly, at least once a semester, to plan their course of study.

After 120:200 Concepts in Biology, students take 120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3 credits), 120:202 Foundations CMB Laboratory (1 credit), 120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3 credits) and 120:206 Foundations EE Laboratory (1 credit) as their core curricular requirements; these four courses provide students with the necessary background to enroll in upper division courses. Please be aware that many upper division courses require completion of both the General Biology and Foundations: Cell and Molecular Biology as prerequisites.

Beyond the core courses, all students must successfully complete one course from each of four Biological Concepts Clusters and two courses designated as Laboratory/Field Experience courses.

Students complete their course of study by successfully completing, with grades of C or better, courses in biological sciences for a minimum of 38 credits.

Among the courses successfully completed for the BS degree, one of those courses must be recognized as Writing Intensive (WI). Students should check the WI status of courses before registering, as the roster of WI courses may vary from semester to semester.

All cognate courses must be completed with grades of C or better. Cognate courses can be completed by enrolling in the appropriate courses either at Rutgers or at NJIT. Please note that in the case of sequential cognate courses the entire sequence must be completed at one or the other campus. Courses offered by NJIT are indicated as School 28 or with the prefix “NJIT.”
 

1. CORE COURSES

21:120:200 Concepts in Biology (4)

21:120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:202 Foundations of Biology: Cell Mol Biol Laboratory (1)

21 (or 28):120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3)

21 (or 28):120:206 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution Laboratory (1)

 

2. BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS CLUSTERS.

Students must complete one course from each of the three clusters listed below.

A) Ecological and Evolutionary Framework

28:120:222 Evolution (3)

21:120:280 Ecology (3)

21:120:282 Animal Behavior (3)

21:120:370 Plant Ecology (3)

 

B) The Functional Organism

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology Lecture (3)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (4)

 

C) Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

21:120:356 Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:360 Biochemistry (3)

21:120:352 Genetics (3)

21:120:355 Cell Biology (3)

 

D) Computational Biology

NJIT Math 371 Physiology and Medicine (3)

NJIT Math 372 Population Biology (3)

NJIT Math 373 Intro Mathematical Biology (3)

NJIT Math 430 Computational Neuroscience (3)

 

3. LABORATORY/FIELD EXPERIENCE

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)

28:120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3)

28:120:206 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution Laboratory (1)

21:120:227 Biology of Invertebrates (4)

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)

21:120:285 Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (4)

21:120:311 Taxonomy Vascular Plants (4)

21:120:313 Mycology (WI) (4)

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)

21:120:326 Parasitology Laboratory (1)

21:120:328 Ecology of Birds (3)

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology (4)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (1)

21:120:371 Field Studies in Plant Ecology (3)

21:120:380 Field Ecology (3)

28:120:475 Ecological Field Methods (3)

21:120:486 Tropical Field Biology (2)

28:120:405 Cell Physiology and Imaging (4)

21:120:430 Plant Growth and Development (4)

21:120:451 Lab in Cell Biophysics (4)

21:120:405 Microanatomy of Tissues (4)

 

4. ADDITIONAL COURSE OFFERINGS

This is not an additional requirement, but rather a list of elective courses that can be used to complete the 38 course credits needed for the biology major.

28:120:225 Insects and Human Society (3)

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)

21:120:326 Parasitology Laboratory (1)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology (4)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (1)

21:120:345 Comparative Vert Physiology (3)

21:120:346 Neurobiology (3)

21:120:350 Immunology (3)

21:120:365 Evolution of Humans (3)

28:120:368 Ecology and Evolution of Disease (3)

28:120:375 Conservation Biology  (3)

28:120:383 Neural Basis of Behavior  (3)

21:120:402 Biology of Cancer  (3)

21:120:422 Biological Invasions (3)

21:120:445 Endocrinology (3)

28:120:447 Cell and Systems Neurobiol (3)

28:120:448 Neuropathophysiology (3)

21:120:455 Molecular Cell Biology (3)

21:120:456 Virology (3)

21:120:472 Environmental Assessment (3)

21:120:491 Problems in Biology (1-3)

21:120:493 Seminar in Biology (1)

21:120:492 Problems in Biology (1-3)

21:120:494 Seminar in Biology (1)

 

5A. COGNATE COURSES

21:160:115, 116 General Chemistry (4, 4)

21:160:113, 114 General Chemistry Lab (1, 1)

21:160:115, 116 General Chemistry (4, 4)

21:160:335, 336 Organic Chemistry I (4, 4)

21:160:331 Organic Chemistry Lab (2)

21:750:203, 204 General Physics (4, 4)

21:750:205, 206 Introductory Physics Laboratory (1, 1)

21:640:135, 136, 235 Calculus I (4, 4, 4)

21:198:101, 102 Computers and Programming (3, 3) or

NJIT BNFO 135, 136 Programming in Bioinformatics (3, 3)

21:640:473 Numerical Analysis (3) or

28:640:340 Applied Numerical Methods (3) or

21:640:314 Elementary Differential Equations (3) or

28:640:222 Differential Equations (3)

21:640:219 Basic Linear Algebra (3) or

28:640:226 Discreet Analysis (3) or

28:640:340 Applied Numerical Methods (3)

 

5B. ALTERNATE COGNATE COURSES AT NJIT

NJIT Chem 124, General Chemistry Laboratory (1)

NJIT Chem 125, General Chemistry I (3)

NJIT Chem 126, General Chemistry II (3)

NJIT Chem 243, Organic Chemistry I (3)

NJIT Chem 244, Organic Chemistry II (3)

NJIT Chem 244A, Organic Chem Lab (2)

NJIT Phys 111, Physics I (3)

NJIT Phys 121, Physics II (3)

NJIT Phys 111A, Physics Lab I (1)

NJIT Phys 121A, Physics Lab II (1)

NJIT Math 111, 112, 211 Calculus I, II, III (4, 4, 3)

Writing Intensive Courses

Rutgers-Newark College of Arts and Sciences requires completion of two Writing Intensive (WI) courses, including one course (3 credits) within the department of the major. Any course listed below can be used to fulfill both the WI requirement and a category requirement for the bachelor of arts or bachelor of science biology major at the same time. The writing intensive courses available in the Biological Sciences Department change from semester to semester. This is the roster of currently and recently offered WI courses:

21:120:311 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (4)

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)

21:120:327 Biology of Invertebrates (4)

21:120:346 Neurobiology (3)

21:120:365 Evolution of Humans (3)

21:120:371 Field Studies in Plant Ecology (3)

28:120:375 Conservation Biology (3)

21:120:381 Field Studies in Animal Ecology (3)

28:120:383 Neural Basis of Behavior

21:120:402 Biology of Cancer

28:120:405 Cell Physiology & Imaging (4)

21:120:413 Mycology (4)

21:120:430 Plant Growth & Development (4)

28:120:447 Cell & Systems Neurobiology

21:120:451 Lab in Cell Biophysics (4)

21:120:456 Virology (3)

21:120:470 Field Ecology (fall) (3)

21:120:472 Environmental Assessment (3)

28:120:475 Ecological Field Methods (3)

21:120:481 Marine Biology (4)

Teacher Certification

Students seeking teacher certification in biology must complete the requirements for the biology major as well as satisfy other requirements for certification. For details regarding admission to the teacher education program and the requirements, students are urged to consult the Urban Education Department at 151 Bradley Hall, 973-353-3537.

Minor in Biology

After a student declares his or her minor at the Department of Biological Science, an advisor will be assigned. Then, to complete the minor the following requirements need to be fulfilled:

The biology minor requires a minimum of 22 credits in school 120:

Core courses

21:120:200 Concepts in Biology (4)

21:120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:202 Foundations of Biology: Cell Mol Biol Laboratory (1)

21 (or 28):120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3)

21 (or 28):120:206 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution Laboratory (1)

In addition to the core courses, students minoring in biology should take one course from each of the three conceptual clusters: .

A) Ecological and Evolutionary Framework

28:120:205 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution (3)

28:120:206 Foundations of Biology: Ecology and Evolution Laboratory (1)

28:120:222 Evolution (3)

21:120:280 Ecology (3)

21:120:282 Animal Behavior (3)

21:120:370 Plant Ecology (3)

 

B) The Functional Organism

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)

21:120:342 Developmental Biology Lecture (3)

21:120:343 Developmental Biology Lab (1)

C) Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms

21:120:356 Molecular Biology (3)

21:120:360 Biochemistry (3)

21:120:352 Genetics (3)

21:120:355 Cell Biology (3)
 

Questions concerning the minor may be directed to the Department of Biological Sciences Undergraduate Coordinator, Room 205, Boyden Hall.

Course descriptions

21:120:101, 102 General Biology (4, 4)
Lectures, laboratories, and small group discussions on major biological principles and their relevance to humans. Topics in 101 include the anatomy, physiology, and ecology of animals and plants. Topics in 102 include cell biology, genetics, and evolution. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. self-paced, averaging 3 hrs. per week. (May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences. September 2011.)

62:120:104 Human Health and Disease (3)
Provides an introduction to the functions of the healthy human body and the mechanisms and consequences of various pathologic conditions. Intended for students with no previous college biology or chemistry. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21&62:120:106 General Horticulture (3)
Basic principles of horticultural science; environmental control of plant growth; theories and methods of plant propagation and cultivation; introduction to ornamental plants. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21&62:120:107 Horticulture Laboratory (1)
Basic plant morphology, performance of propagation techniques of seeds and plant organs in the greenhouse. Identitication of common indoor and outdoor ornamental plants. Testing of soil mineral content, texture and particle requirements for plant growth. Pre- or corequisite: 21&62:120:106. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences. May be taken with 21&62:120:106 to satisfy laboratory science requirement in conjunction with 21&62:120:109, 110.

21&62:120:108 Human Sexuality (3)
Reproductive biology, including anatomy and development of sexual structures, menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and childbirth; self-examination, contraception and abortion, and sexually transmitted diseases; role of emotions, communication skills, and values in sexuality; diversity of sexual behavior and legal and commercial aspects of sexuality. Emphasis is on critical thinking. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21&62:120:109 Basic Plant Science (3)
Introduction to basic botany and the applied plant sciences; plant biology with applications to ecology and conservation, food and drug problems, horticulture, and agriculture; demonstrations in greenhouses and campus plantings. Not open to majors or to those who have taken or plan to take 21:120:101, 102.

21&62:120:110 Basic Plant Science Laboratory (1)
Studies on organs, tissues and cells of the plant body. Exploration of the diversity of mosses to flower plants. Exercises in photosynthesis, respiration and plant hormones. Pre- or corequisite: 21&62:120:109. Not open to majors or to those who have taken or plan to take 21:120:101, 102. May be taken with 21&62:120:109 to fulfill the laboratory science requirement when taken in conjunction with 21&62:120:106, 107.

21:120:201 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (3)
The chemical components of the cell; subcellular structure and methods of study; thermodynamics and metabolism; membrane biology, energy utilization and transfer; protein and nucleic acid structure and function; transcription, translation, and genetic regulation. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102 or placement exam, and 21:160:115. Co-requisite: Must be taken concurrently with 21:120:202.

21:120:202 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory (1)
Exercises in biological buffers; electron transport systems in mitochondria and chloroplasts; enzyme kinetics; use of proteins as markers of evolution; DNA fingerprinting by polymerase chain reaction; signal transduction; and bioinformatics. Lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102; 21:160:115. Co-requisite: Must be taken concurrently with 21:120:201

21:120:201, 202 Foundations of Biology: Cell and Molecular Biology (4)
Cell chemical components, structure and methods of study; thermodynamics and metabolism; membrane biology, energy utilization and transfer; protein and nucleic acid structure and function; transcription, translation, and genetic regulation. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102 or placement exam, and 21:160:115.

62:120:203 Plant Biology (3)
An evolutionary survey of the plant kingdom, with emphasis on the flowering plants, their structure, and major life processes. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21&62:120:205 Environmental Issues (3)
Basic ecological principles; the human population and attempts to control it; human impact on the environment: air and water pollution, land use and misuse, and conservation of resources. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21:120:211 Plant Kingdom (4)
A survey of the major groups in the plant kingdom; the morphology, reproduction, and evolution of plants with emphasis on their role in nature and importance to humans. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101, 102 or permission of instructor.

21:120:230 Biology of Seed Plants (4)
The morphology, physiology, and reproduction of flowering plants, plant structures, functions, and products essential to human life; the cultural and applied aspects of plant science. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101, 102 or permission of instructor.

21:120:235 Microbiology (3)
Fundamentals of microbiology, including the distinguishing characteristics of the various groups of microbial cells; microbial control, including physical and chemical agents and chemotherapeutic agents; applications in personal and public health and in industry; mechanisms of disease production and host resistance; prevention and control of disease. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:241-242 or equivalent. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21:120:237 Environmental Microbiology (4)
Discussion will be on prokaryotes and their environmental impact; cell biology, metabolism, physiology, and genetics; selected environments. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences. Priority to students in the environmental science major and to New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) engineering majors.

21:120:240 Human Physiology (3)
Study of the biological function and regulation of the major organ systems of the human body, with emphasis on homeostasis and integration as it applies to human health and disease. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites:  21:120:101, 102, 21:160:115-116. May not be used for credit toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21:120:241, 242 Anatomy and Physiology (4,4)
Examination of integrated structure and function of the human body from the aspect of levels of organization. Emphasis is on homeostatic mechanisms. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. May not be used for credit toward the biology, botany, or zoology major. Intended for students with career goals in allied health sciences. 21:120:241 must be taken before 21:120:242.

21:120:280 Ecology (3)
This is an introductory course in general ecology. The basic science of ecology, the interactions of living beings among themselves and with their environment. Topics are related to environmental aspects of societal concern such as global warming, land use, biodiversity crisis, among others. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:285 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates (4)
Phylogeny of gross structure and structural integration in the vertebrates; laboratory work on amphioxus, lamprey, dogfish, and cat. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:311 Taxonomy of Vascular Plants (4)
The principles of plant systematics, especially as applied to vascular plants. The identification, classification, and evolutionary relationship of major plant groups with emphasis on the local flora with extensive field trips. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. and field trips 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:211 or 230, or permission of instructor.

21:120:313 Mycology (4)
Fungal morphology and physiology, reproduction, taxonomy and the impact of fungi on civilization. Emphasis on medical mycology, plant fungal infections, and antibiotics derived from fungi including pharmaceuticals and the relationships between fungi and other organisms as well as current research in mycology. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202 or permission of instructor.

21:120:322 Evolution (3)
Principles and mechanisms of evolution and history of evolutionary theory; mechanisms of animal speciation and adaptive radiation; the role of population and genetics in understanding microevolution. Prerequisite: 21:120:352.

21:120:325 Animal Parasites (3)
The biology and identification of the four major parasite groups; parasitic protista, flatworms, roundworms, and arthropods in relation to their hosts. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:201, 202 plus one advanced course in biology. Open to juniors and seniors only.

21:120:326 Laboratory Exercises in Parasitology (1)
Visualization, and identification of parasitic organisms (protista, flatworms, roundworms, and arthropods) and host-parasite interactions. Lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:301 plus one advanced course in biology. Corequisite: 21:120:325.

21:120:327 Biology of Invertebrates (4)
Review of the major animal phyla; emphasis throughout on critical thinking and reasoning about the interrelationships of structure, function, and behavior in their ecological and evolutionary contexts. Laboratory work emphasizes living animals; supplemented by fieldwork. One field trip required. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:328 Ecology of Birds (3)
Designed as introduction to aspects of the biology of birds, this class combines field trips with lectures and a student seminar. Students will be exposed to current themes in evolution and ecology of birds and will also learn how to actively study birds in their habitats and thereby understand and appreciate the high diversity of birds. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102 and 28:120:222, or 21:120:280, or 21:120:370.

21:120:330 Plant Physiology (4)
Growth and metabolism of plants; water relations, inorganic nutrition, photosynthesis, metabolism of organic materials, and plant growth regulators. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202 or permission of instructor.

21:120:335 General Microbiology (4)
Cellular structure and metabolic pathways of microorganisms. Prokaryotic gene expression and genome structure. Taxonomy and environmental adaptations of microorganisms. Methods to grow and control microorganisms. Use of microbes in biotechnology. The laboratory include basic techniques in microbiology, extensive exercises in identification of organisms based on their peculiar metabolic pathways. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202 and 21&62:160:331.

21:120:340 Mammalian Physiology (4)
The physiology of the human as a mammal. Function and homeostatic regulation of neuromuscular, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine, digestive, and excretory systems. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202.

21:120:342 Developmental Biology (3)
Descriptive and experimental approaches to molecular, cellular, and organismal changes during development; mechanisms of cell differentiation, organogenesis, morphogenesis, and pattern formation. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202. Recommended: 21:120:320.

21:120:343 Laboratory Exercises in Developmental Biology (1)
Study of the biochemical, histochemical, and molecular biology techniques employed in studying embryonic development using various model systems. Lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202. Corequisite: 21:120:342.

21:120:346 Neurobiology (3)
Introduction to neurobiology, emphasizing cellular, developmental, and physiological aspects. Course begins with cellular properties of neurons and synaptic communication and aims to introduce topics in the organization, function, development, and disorders of neural systems. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202 and 21:120:355 or 21:120:356.

21:120:352 Genetics (3)
The basic principles and mechanisms of transmission genetics. Sex-linked traits. The role of probability in genetics. Gene expression and regulation. Gene organization in the prokaryotic genophore and the eukaryotic chromosome. Genetics of model organisms. Use of mutants in genetic studies. Genomes, genomics, and the use of nucleic acids and protein databases. Epigenetics, extranuclear inheritance and cytoplasmic factors. Generalities of population, quantitative and evolutionary genetics. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:355 Cell Biology (3)
A study of cell structure and function with emphasis on molecular components and molecular mechanisms that regulate various cellular processes; recent advances in molecular biology are integrated with current knowledge of the ultrastructure and function of cells. This course is concerned primarily with eukaryotic cells. Prerequisites: 21:120:201-202 and 21&62:160:115-116.

21:120:356 Molecular Biology (3)
Gene expression and its regulation in eukaryotic cells. Gene organization and chromosome structure. Mechanisms of replication. Mutations. Mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. Transcription and regulation of RNA synthesis. Post-transcriptional processes and regulation. Translation and post-translational modifications. Nucleic acid technology. Structure and roles of non-coding RNA. Genomics and databases. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202.

21:120:360 Biochemistry (3)
The objective of this course is to gain a deeper understanding of cell function through the study of the structure, function and metabolism of its component molecules. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202; 21&62:160:335, 336.

21:120:370 Plant Ecology (3)
Study of plants in relation to their environment; emphasis on local plant communities, modern methods of analysis, and applications to forestry and conservation. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:371 Field Studies in Plant Ecology (3)
Modern and classical methods are employed in the study of plant communities and plant geography across the region. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or permission of instructor.

21:120:380 Field Ecology (3)
Basic field techniques for the study of animals in their natural habitats; principles of animal ecology as demonstrated in field and laboratory work. Prerequisite: 21:120:280 or permission of instructor.

21:120:382 Animal Behavior (3)
Evolutionary processes that shape the behaviors of animals in their natural environment. Pre- or corequisites: 21:120:101, 102.

21:120:365 Evolution of Humans (3)
“From the Big-Bang to Consciousness.” Topics in astronomy, evolution, and neurobiology linking the origin of the Universe, the origin of life, and the evolution of the nervous system. Pre-requisites 21:120:101, 102 and 21:120:201.

21:120:402 Biology of Cancer (3)
The objectives of this course are to gain a fundamental understanding of the nature of cancer at the cellular and molecular level and to understand the implications of the findings of contemporary cancer research for the prevention and treatment of the disease.

21:120:403 Biological Ultrastructure (3)
For the student who has some histological background ; makes the transition from light microscopy to electron microscopy; examines the ultrastructural appearance and functions of the subcellular organelles. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202 and permission of instructor.

21:120:404 Light and Electron Microscopy (4)
Processing of tissue samples to obtain finished light microscope slides and electron micrographs; the techniques involved in producing micrographs; a paper interpreting content of the micrographs required. Lec. 2 hrs., lab. 6 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:403.

21:120:405 Microanatomy of Cells and Tissues (4)
Course is designed to familiarize students with microscopy techniques available to view and interpret the structural appearance and functions of the subcellular organelles and incorporate them into the various cells in the four major tissue types of the human body. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202. Open to juniors and seniors only.

21:120:415 Paleobotany (4)
Survey of evolutionary trends in the plant kingdom; comparative study of the morphology, anatomy, and reproduction of fossil plants and their survivors, with emphasis on the vascular plants. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisite: 62:120:211 or 21:120:230, or permission of instructor.

21:120:422 Biological Invasions (3)
Biological invasions by non-native species have become one of the major environmental problems. Primarily addresses the ecological and evolutionary aspects of this ever-growing problem. After describing patterns of invasion and linking them into a scientific framework, applied aspects will be addressed focusing on aspects of societal concern and workable counterstrategies. The topic will be approached using lectures, student-facilitated discussions and paper presentations, illustrative labs, and computer experiments. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102, and 28:120:222, or 21:120:280.

21:120:430 Plant Growth and Development (4)
Study of the dynamics of growth and development of plants as influenced by physiological and environmental factors. Focus will be on the regulation of gene expression during plant development. Lecture topics will address modern plant molecular biology approaches. Laboratory focuses on plant tissue culture and applications to plant biotechnology. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:330, or permission of instructor.

21:120:435 Microbial Physiology and Metabolism (3)
Biology of prokaryotic organisms. Emphasis on physiological, biochemical, and ecological aspects that are unique to bacteria. Prerequisites: 21:120:335, 360.

21:120:443 Immunology (3)
Basic concepts of cells and humoral products of the immune system; the genetic control of immunity and generation of diversity, and antigen-antibody reactions, and immunologic techniques. These basic concepts are applied to current issues and treatment in the fields of transplantation, hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, tumor immunology and immunodeficiency. Prerequisite: 21:120:201, 202 or permission of instructor.

21:120:445 Endocrinology (3)
The structures and functions of the endocrine glands and their role in the physiological integration of the human body. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202, 21&62:160:113-114 and 115-116.

21:120:451 Laboratory in Cellular and Molecular Biology: Cellular Biophysics (4)
Laboratory-intensive course with lectures and discussion covering the physical principles governing eukaryotic cell function. Emphasis placed on the electrical properties of excitable cells and model membrane systems. Introduction to the principles underlying light and electron microscopy. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Admission by permission of instructor only. Prerequisites: 21:120:330 or 355 or 356; 21:160:115,116; 21:750:203,204.

21:120:452 Laboratory in Cellular and Molecular Biology: Molecular Biotechniques (4)
Lecture and laboratory course on principles and techniques of molecular biotechnology. Emphasis on recent techniques in molecular biology. Laboratory exercises include isolation, cloning, and sequencing of genetic material; protein purification; gel electrophoresis of proteins and nucleic acids; DNA synthesis; RFLPs and PCR techniques; construction and screening of DNA and genomic libraries. Industrial applications of molecular biology presented. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Admission by permission of instructor only. Prerequisites: 21:120:201, 202, 356.

21:120:455 Molecular Cell Biology (3)
This is an advanced course in cell and molecular biology, which provides students with the necessary foundation to explore and understand emerging concepts and mechanisms that govern the activities of individual cells and cells within tissue. This course is taught in a team setting with multiple faculty members bringing their expertise and research experience into the classroom setting. Lec. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:355, 356. Recommended: 21:120:360.

21:120:456 Virology (3)
Structure and function of viruses; modes of infection, virus-host interaction, and viral reproduction. Prerequisite: 21:120:335 or permission of instructor.

21:120:470 Field Ecology (3)
Field-oriented study of plants and plant communities; field and laboratory work are combined to demonstrate and analyze plant communities and their abiotic environment; modern instruments and techniques used in a problem-solving approach. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102, 21:120:370 or 380, and permission of instructor.

21:120:471 Ecological Physiology (3)
The physiological and ecological factors that permit and facilitate the adaptation of animal or plant populations to diverse environments. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or 380.

21:120:472 Environmental Assessment (3)
Lectures, readings, fieldwork, practical demonstration, and evaluations used to study the science of environmental assessment and to explore regulatory frameworks in which the science may be applied to real-world situations (e.g., natural resource inventories, polluted soil and water, and wetlands). Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or permission of instructor.

21:120:473 Ecology of Microorganisms (3)
Lectures and problem sets on interactions between microorganisms and the environment, and their role in element cycling in pristine and contaminated terrestrial and aquatic habitats. Prerequisite: 21:120:335.

21:120:481 Marine Biology (4)
Basic ecology of the marine environment; primary producers, zooplankton, benthic ecology, human impact on the sea, including fisheries and pollution. Field trips to nearby salt marsh, mud flat, rocky shore, and sandy beach habitats, plus a shipboard experience. Lec. 3 hrs., lab. 3 hrs. Prerequisites: 21:120:101, 102. Recommended: 21:120:327, 380.

21:120:486 Tropical Field Biology (2)
An intensive two-week summer course in tropical biology given in Puerto Rico. Emphasis on principles of ecology and diversity of organisms. Extensive field trips to tropical rain forest, desert, mangrove swamp, Karst topography, coral reef, and commercial plantations. Prerequisite: Written permission of instructor. Enrollment limited to 12 students. Course is for two weeks at the University of Puerto Rico (Mayagüez). The course fee includes round-trip airfare, housing, local transportation, and all expenses except meals. Because vigorous outdoor activity is required, students must be in good physical condition.

21:120:487 Systems Ecology: Ecosystems in the Landscape (3)
Lectures and problem sets on ecological energetics, soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, effect of spatial pattern on ecological process, landscape ecology, and other broadscale approaches to ecology. Prerequisite: 21:120:370 or 380.

21:120:491,492 Problems in Biology (BA,BA)
Outstanding juniors and seniors may enroll in this course under the supervision of a qualified faculty member with written permission of the faculty member and the undergraduate coordinator. Students with a cumulative grade-point average of 3.2 or higher will receive special consideration. No more than 6 problems credits may be used toward any major or minor offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.

21:120:493,494 Seminar in Biology (1, 1)
Discussion of selected topics with emphasis on current research. Open to seniors with a cumulative grade-point average of at least  3.0 and with permission of the undergraduate advisor and instructor. Only one credit may be used toward any major offered by the Department of Biological Sciences.